Cosmetics (colloquially known as makeup or make-up) are care substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of the human body. They are generally mixtures of chemical compounds, some being derived from natural sources, many being synthetic.
Cosmetics that are meant to be applied to the face and eye area are usually applied with a brush or the fingertips.
Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the body intended for application.
• Primer, come in various formulas to suit individual skin conditions. Most are meant to reduce the appearance of pore size, prolong the wear of makeup, and allow for a smoother application of makeup, and are applied before foundation.
• Lipstick, lip gloss, lip liner, lip plumper, lip balm, lip conditioner, lip primer, and lip boosters. Lipsticks are intended to add color and texture to the lips and often come in a wide range of colours, as well as finishes such as matte, satin and lustre. Lip stains have a water or gel base and may contain alcohol to help the product stay on the lips. The idea behind lip stains is to temporarily saturate the lips with a dye. Usually designed to be waterproof, the product may come with an applicator brush, rollerball, or be applied with a finger. Lip glosses are intended to add shine to the lips, and may also add a tint of color, as well as being scented or flavoured. Lip balms are most often used to moisturize and protect the lips. They often contain SPF protection.
• Concealer, makeup used to cover any imperfections of the skin.
Concealer is often used for any extra coverage needed to cover blemishes, underage circles, and other imperfections. Concealer is often thicker and more solid than foundation, and provides longer lasting, more detailed coverage. Some formulations are meant only for the eye or only for the face.
• Foundation is used to smooth out the face and cover spots or uneven skin coloration. Usually a liquid, cream, or powder, as well as most recently a light and fluffy mousse. Foundation provides coverage from sheer to full depending on preference. Foundation primer can be applied before or after foundation to obtain a smoother finish. Some primers come in powder or liquid form to be applied before foundation as a base, while other primers come as a spray to be applied after the foundation to help the make-up last longer.
• Face powder is used to set the foundation, giving it a matte finish, and also to conceal small flaws or blemishes. Tinted face powders may also be worn alone as a light foundation.
• Rouge, blush or blusher is cheek colouring used to bring out the color in the cheeks and make the cheekbones appear more defined. Rouge comes in powder, cream, and liquid forms.
• Contour powder/creams are used to define the face. They can be used to give the illusion of a slimmer face or to modify a person’s face shape in other desired ways. Usually a few shades darker than one’s own skin tone and matte in finish, contour products create the illusion of depth. A darker toned foundation/concealer can be used instead of contour products for a more natural look.
• Highlight, used to draw attention to the high points of the face as well as to add glow to the face, comes in liquid, cream, and powder forms. It often contains a substance to provide shimmer. A lighter toned foundation/concealer can be used instead of highlight to create a more natural look.
• Bronzer is used to give skin a bit of color by adding a golden or bronze glow, as well as being used for contouring. It comes in either matte, semi matte/satin, or shimmer finishes.
• Mascara is used to darken, lengthen, thicken, or draw attention to the eyelashes. It is available in natural colours such as brown and black, but also comes in bolder colours such as blue, pink, or purple. Some mascaras also include glitter flecks.
There are many different formulas, including waterproof versions for those prone to allergies or sudden tears. It is often used after an eyelash curler and mascara primer.
Many mascaras now have certain components intended to help lashes appear longer and thicker.
• Eyeliner is used to enhance and elongate the size of the eye.
• Eyebrow pencils, creams, waxes, gels and powders are used to color and define the brows.
• Setting Spray is used to keep applied makeup intact for long periods of time. An alternative to setting spray is setting powder, which may be either pigmented or translucent.
• False eyelashes are frequently used when extravagant and exaggerated eyelashes are desired. Their basic design usually consists of human hair or synthetic materials attached to a thin cloth-like band, which is applied with an eyelash glue to the lash line. Designs vary from short, natural-looking lashes to extremely long, wispy, rainbow-coloured lashes. Rhinestones, gems, and even feathers and lace occur on some false eyelash designs.